Has America Become a Four-Party System?

​Partisan politics in an era of polarization is not only about the deep divide between the parties, but it is also about the fractures that are growing between the ideologically purist wings and the moderate pragmatists of each party. ​

Please join the U.S. Association of Former Member of Congress (FMC) and the Graduate School of Political Management (GSPM) for a panel conversation about the consequences of primary challengers for politics and governing.

Come hear the perspective of former members who faced primary challenges and learn about the research investigating this recent phenomenon!


Elaine C. Kamarck​, Ph.D., Director of the​ Center for Effective Public Management at the Brookings Institution


​Former Senator Blanche Lincoln, (D - Arkansas)
Former Representative Cliff Stearns, (R - Florida)
Former Representative Al Wynn, (D - Maryland)
​Representative Charlie Dent, (R - Pennsylvania​) (invited)